Barely a week before the contract for more than 325,000 United Parcel Service workers expires, union and company negotiators have yet to reach an agreement to avert a strike that could derail the U.S. economy.

UPS and the union, the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, have resolved various issues, including heat safety and forced overtime. But they remain deadlocked on pay for part-time workers, who represent more than half of the unionized workers at UPS.

A strike that could come as soon as August 1 could have major consequences for the company, e-commerce and the supply chain.

UPS handles about a quarter of the tens of millions of packages that are shipped each day in the United States, according to the Pitney Bowes Parcel Shipping Index. Experts said competitors lack the scale to seamlessly replace that lost capacity.

The Teamsters cited the risks its members took to help generate the company’s strong pandemic-era performance as a reason they deserve big raises. UPS’s adjusted net income rose more than 70 percent between 2019 and last year, to more than $11 billion.

The contract negotiations broke down on July 5 in an acrimony. The two sides are due to resume negotiations in the coming days, but the window for a deal before the current five-year contract expires is tight.

In Facebook post this month, the union said the company’s latest offer would “leave behind” many part-timers whose jobs include sorting packages and loading trucks. The post said part-time employees earned “close to minimum wage in many parts of the country.”

UPS, which says it relies heavily on part-timers to navigate bursts of activity during the day and expand its workforce during busier months, said it had offered significant pay increases before the talks broke down. According to the company, part-timers currently earn about $20 an hour on average after 30 days as well as paid time off, health care and pension benefits. The company noted that many part-timers have graduated to jobs as full-time drivers, which pay $42 an hour on average after four years.

The union has gone out of its way to highlight the challenges facing part-time workers. In television interviews and at rallies, the Teamsters president, Sean O’Brien, emphasized what the union calls “part-time poverty” jobs. He was often joined by leaders of other unions and politicians, including Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the New York Democrat.

UPS said Wednesday it is “prepared to increase our industry-leading pay and benefits.” But it is unclear whether the company will meet the union’s demands.

“UPS certainly wants to reach a deal, but not at the expense of its ability to compete in the long term,” said Alan Amling, a former UPS executive and fellow at the University of Tennessee’s Global Supply Chain Institute.

Professor Amling estimated that it would cost the company $850 million per year to raise wages $5 an hour for all part-time employees represented by the Teamsters.

The company that normally reports its second quarter earnings in late July, delayed the report this year until after the strike deadline. UPS said the timing is within the required window to report its earnings and that it has never released a date other than August 8 for the next release.

The sometimes-volatile negotiations began in April, and the Teamsters announced in mid-June that their UPS members had voted, with a 97 percent majority, to authorize a strike.

Less than two weeks later, the union said it was walking away from the table because of the company’s “terrible counteroffer” on raises and cost of living, and that a strike “now looks inevitable.”

The two sides resumed their discussions the week before the Fourth of July and soon resolved what was probably their most contentious issue: a class of labor created under the existing contract.

UPS said the arrangement was intended to allow workers to take on dual roles, such as sorting packages some days and driving on other days — particularly Saturdays — to keep up with growing demand for weekend delivery.

But the Teamsters said that the hybrid idea did not happen, and that in practice the new category of workers drove full-time Tuesday through Saturday, just for less pay than other drivers. (The company said some employees worked under the hybrid arrangement.)

Under the agreement reached this month, the lower-paid category would be eliminated and workers who drove Tuesday through Saturday would be converted to regular full-time drivers.

That agreement also stipulated that no driver would be required to work an unscheduled sixth day in a week, which drivers were sometimes forced to do to keep up with a Saturday requirement.

Despite progress on these issues, Mr O’Brien could face a delicate test persuading members to approve a deal if it falls short of the high expectations he helped set. He won the union’s top job in 2021 while regularly criticizing his immediate predecessor, James P. Hoffa, for being too accommodating toward employers.

Mr. O’Brien argued that Mr. Hoffa effectively forced UPS workers to accept a deeply flawed contract in 2018, even after they rejected it, and accused his rival in the race to succeed Mr. Hoffa of being reluctant to strike against the company.

He began focusing members’ attention on the contract and a possible strike even before formally taking over as president in March of last year, and spoke highly of the union’s goals for a new contract.

“This UPS deal will be the defining moment in organized labor,” he told activists with Teamsters for a Democratic Union, a group that supported his candidacy, in a speech last fall.

The union under Mr O’Brien has held training sessions in recent months for strike captains and contract action team members who rally co-workers to help pressure the company.

And he strongly urged the White House not to wade into the contract negotiations. In his Boston youth, “if two people had a disagreement, and you had nothing to do with it, you just kept walking,” he said during a recent webinar with members. “We echoed that to the White House on many occasions.” (Administration officials said they are in contact with both sides.)

In some ways, the context for this year’s negotiations resembles the circumstances of the nationwide Teamsters strike at UPS in 1997. UPS was also in the midst of several profitable yearsand the rapid growth in its part-time workforce loomed large.

But while a reformist president, Ron Carey, mobilized the union for battle, its ranks appeared divided between his supporters and those of Mr. Hoffa, who narrowly lost an election for the union presidency the previous year. The union may have more leverage this time as its members appear much more united under Mr O’Brien.

Barry Eidlin, a sociologist at McGill University in Montreal who studies labor and closely follows the Teamsters, said that while the escalation to the current contract battle has lagged in some parts of the country, where more conservative local officials are less enthusiastic, Mr. O’Brien has had no serious opposition within the union.

“Not everyone is a fan of O’Brien, but they’re not actively organizing to undermine him like people were with Ron Carey in the ’90s,” Dr. Eidlin said. “It’s a huge, huge difference.”

However, for all his pugilistic statements, Mr O’Brien remains a strongman who seems to prefer reaching a deal to striking, and he has subtly acted to make it less likely.

Earlier in the negotiations, Mr. O’Brien said UPS employees would not work beyond Aug. 1 without a ratified contract, and that the two sides needed to reach an agreement by July 5 to give members a chance to approve it in time. But last weekend he said UPS employees would continue to work on Aug. 1, as long as the two sides reached a tentative agreement.

“This is not a change,” a Teamsters spokesman said Friday in an email. “This is how you get a contract. Our pressure and deadline on UPS forced them to move in ways they hadn’t before.”

Niraj Chokshi contributed reporting.

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