The Senate Judiciary Committee on Thursday approved legislation that would impose strict new ethics rules on judges, overriding fierce objections from Republicans to address a series of revelations about Supreme Court justices taking free luxury trips and receiving other financial benefits from wealthy benefactors.

The legislation, which has little chance of advancing because of strong GOP opposition, would require the high court to at least adopt and adhere to ethics and disclosure rules equivalent to those applied to members of Congress. It would also impose new transparency measures and create a panel of appellate judges to review misconduct complaints made against the judges. Democratic members of the committee said the action was necessary because the court refused to police itself.

“This legislation will be a crucial first step in restoring confidence in the court after a constant stream of reports about the ethical failures of justice,” said Senator Richard J. Durbin, Democrat of Illinois and chairman of the committee, of the bill that passed. party-line vote.

Republicans have accused Democrats of trying to “destroy” the conservative-dominated court and undermine its credibility over decisions on abortion rights, the environment, civil rights and federal power that Democrats have opposed. They said it had no chance of becoming law.

“This bill is going nowhere,” said Sen. Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, the senior Republican on the committee, who said the legislation would “fundamentally change the way the court operates.”

He and other Republicans on the panel said the legislation represented a flagrant violation of the constitutional separation of powers because it would allow lower court judges to pass judgments on judges who review and sometimes reverse lower court decisions. They said lawyers will try to use the new rules to force judges to recuse themselves and dirty the court.

“I think our founding fathers are rolling in their graves,” said Sen. John Cornyn, Republican of Texas.

Democrats admitted that the legislation could not pass the current Senate, where it would need 60 votes, and has no prospects in the Republican-controlled House. But they said the debate would focus attention on ethics issues at the high court and could create momentum for future action by Congress.

“We’re here because the highest court in the land has the lowest standards of ethics anywhere in the federal government and judges have exhibited a lot of misconduct, not least in unfortunate efforts to excuse wrongdoing,” said Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse, a Democrat. of Rhode Island. and the main author of the bill. “This cannot go on. Defending this behavior is defending the indefensible.”

The battle was the latest clash over the court in a committee that has seen increasingly partisan battles over judicial nominations and the confirmations of the justices themselves. Mr. Graham suggested earlier this week that the Democratic decision to pursue the ethics legislation despite failing to clear Congress was likely to lead to less Republican cooperation on the panel.

The Democratic push followed a series of news reports showing that Justice Clarence Thomas and Justice Samuel A. Alito took lavish vacations and private jet trips courtesy of billionaires and did not disclose them. In the case of Judge Thomas, a Republican megadonor, Harlan Crow, also paid for a relative’s education and bought real estate from the justice.

Sen. Peter Welch, Democrat of Vermont, said his constituents expressed surprise that judges could receive such benefits, let alone fail to disclose them.

“Disclosure is the bare minimum, and that should apply to anyone who is a judge,” he said.

Defending the trips, the justices said they believe they don’t have to report them because of their social relationships with those who pick up the tab. And Republicans pointed to a clarification earlier this year to the ethics code that governs judges in federal courts other than the Supreme Court that they must disclose unpaid stays at commercial properties.

The Supreme Court is not bound by that legal code of ethics because of its special constitutional status. But in a letter to the committee earlier this year, Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. said the high court “takes guidance” from the code of ethics followed by the lower courts.

Republicans said the ethics legislation was the latest installment in a Democratic push to stoke public anger at the court. They repeatedly noted that Sen. Chuck Schumer, Democrat of New York and the majority leader, appeared at a 2020 abortion rights rally outside the Supreme Court, singled out Justices Neil M. Gorsuch and Brett M. Kavanaugh and said they had “unleashed the storm” and “will pay the price” if they stripped abortion rights.

The comments drew a sharp rebuke from Chief Justice Roberts, and Mr. Schumer walked them back the next day, saying he meant there would be political consequences.

“This bill is not about oversight or accountability,” said Sen. Charles E. Grassley, Republican of Iowa and former chairman of the Judiciary Committee. “It’s about bullying and intimidating the Supreme Court.”

But Democrats said they were simply trying to remove an ethics cloud hanging over the court and noted that ethics questions had been raised against judges appointed by both Republicans and Democrats.

“The highest court in the land should be an example,” said Senator Mazie K. Hirono, Democrat of Hawaii.

Before passing the legislation, Democrats on the committee countered a series of Republican amendments intended to kill it.

Despite the committee’s approval, Mr. Schumer has not committed to bringing the ethics legislation to the floor for a conflict that could prevent or slow down other must-pass items. It’s unlikely to act anytime soon as the Senate tries to advance bipartisan legislation on Pentagon policy and spending, among other issues.

But Mr. Schumer on Thursday reiterated his own support for the bill.

“The American people agree that judges who sit on the highest court in the land should be held to the same high ethical standards,” he said.

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