The civilian toll is rising in Odessa, the Ukrainian port city that has been under relentless attack by Russian forces for the past week after the Kremlin pulled out of a deal that allowed Ukrainian grain to be exported across the Black Sea.

One person died and 22 others, including four children, were injured in Russian rocket fire on Odessa overnight on Sunday, according to Ukrainian officials. At least six residential buildings were damaged, as was an Orthodox cathedral where rescuers pulled an icon dedicated to the city’s patron saint from the rubble.

“There can be no excuse for Russian evil,” Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskiy said of the attacks in a Telegram posting on Sunday, adding: “There will definitely be retaliation.”

With its busy port, Odessa has long been a crucial economic link for Ukraine to the rest of the global economy. Even though the city had been subject to attacks earlier in the war, there was a fleeting sense of normalcy as for almost a year it shipped agricultural products despite a wartime blockade by Russia.

But that ended last week, after Russia said it was ending its participation in the Black Sea grain deal, a deal that has helped stabilize food supplies around the world. Moscow said the pact favors Ukraine.

In recent days, Russia has launched some of the fiercest attacks of the war on Odessa, destroying grain that could have fed tens of thousands of people for a year. The strikes also killed at least one other civilian and wounded at least two others. The Kremlin has threatened more hostilities, saying it will treat any ships sailing around Ukrainian ports in the Black Sea as military targets.

The cathedral is Odessa’s largest Orthodox and has remained aligned with the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which is supported by Moscow, despite the move of many parishes in Ukraine to join a branch that is loyal to Kyiv after Russia’s full-scale invasion last year.

Founded in 1794, the building, also known as Transfiguration Cathedral, became the most important church in Novorossiya, the name given by the Russian Empire to lands along the Black Sea and Crimea that is part of present-day Ukraine. It was destroyed during a Soviet campaign against religion in 1936 and was not rebuilt until after the fall of the Soviet Union.

In 2010, Patriarch Kirill, the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, consecrated the newly rebuilt cathedral, a sign of the close ties between the church and Moscow. Twelve years later, after Moscow launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine, Kirill “blessed” the military effort and said that Russians who fought in Ukraine would have their sins “washed away.”

There was no immediate comment from the patriarch or the Kremlin about the damage to the cathedral on Sunday.

The Russian Defense Ministry said it targeted military infrastructure in Odessa and blamed the damage to the cathedral on “actions” by Ukrainian air defense teams, saying in a post on the Telegram app that “the most likely cause of its destruction was the fall of a Ukrainian anti-aircraft guided missile.”

On Saturday, Mr Zelensky warned of the dire fallout from Russian actions in the Black Sea.

“Any destabilization in this region and the disruption of our export routes will mean problems with corresponding consequences for everyone in the world,” he said in his night address. Food prices could go up, he said.

The grain agreement, brokered by the United Nations and Turkey about a year ago, helped to stabilize food around the world. But now, Russia’s withdrawal from the agreement could again threaten food security in several countries already reeling from multiple crises, especially in the Horn of Africa.

Mr. Zelensky is pushing for more help from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. After a meeting on Saturday with the secretary general of the alliance, Jens Stoltenberg, Mr. Zelensky said that the Ukraine-NATO Council, a new body that hopes to deepen the alliance between Ukraine and its allies, will soon hold a meeting on the situation in Odessa and the Black Sea.

Also on Sunday, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia met with President Aleksandr G. Lukashenko of Belarus in St. Petersburg, the Belarusian state news agency reported. It was one of the first public meetings between the two leaders since Mr Lukashenko negotiated an end to last month’s brief mutiny by the Russian Wagner militia. The two allies would discuss security, bilateral relations and other issues, the news agency reported.

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