Alabama Republicans passed a new congressional map on Friday that will test the limits of a judicial mandate to create a second majority-black district in the state or something “close to it,” infuriating plaintiffs in the court case and Democrats who predicted the plan would never pass with a judicial panel tasked with approving it.

A month after a surprising Supreme Court ruling that found the state’s existing map violated a major civil rights law by diluting the power of Black voters, the Republican supermajority in the Alabama Legislature. supported a plan that would increase the share of Black voters in one of the state’s six majority-white congressional districts to about 40 percent, from about 30 percent.

The map also dropped the percentage of Black voters in the existing majority-Black district to about 51 percent from about 55 percent. In Alabama, more than one in four residents are Black.

Notably, the redrawing ensures that none of the state’s six white Republican incumbents would have to face each other in a primary to keep their seat. The proposal will have to be approved by a federal court, which will hold a hearing on it next month.

Whatever map the court ultimately approves will have electoral and political implications beyond Alabama, with control of the U.S. House of Representatives dependent on a slim Republican majority and other states facing similar litigation under the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Since most Black voters in Alabama support Democratic candidates, a second majority-Black district would likely elect a Democrat.

The plaintiffs in the case have vowed to challenge the legislature’s map. But even before it cleared the Legislature, Democrats and multiple voting rights advocates said it fell short of what the court required and predicted the federal court would eventually appoint a special master to oversee yet another redistricting.

“This is the quintessential definition of noncompliance,” State Representative Chris England, a Democrat representing Tuscaloosa, told Republicans Friday, in the final hours of a special session that began Monday for the sole purpose of creating a new map.

Speaking to reporters afterward, Mr. England added that “ultimately, I think the federal court will do what they’ve done for Alabama for decades and hopefully save us from ourselves and fulfill us with their mandate to create fair opportunity for African-Americans.”

Republicans defended their map as a satisfactory adjustment, arguing that it kept areas and districts together that share similar economic and geographic priorities and that candidates preferred by Black voters could win in either of the districts whose boundaries they adjusted. They focused on a line in a lower court ruling that suggested the possibility of creating “an additional district in which Black voters otherwise have an opportunity to elect a representative of their choice,” insisting that they did so.

Pressed by Democrats during debate, State Representative Chris Pringle, Republican of Mobile and the speaker pro tempore, called it “the best map we could negotiate” with Republicans in the Senate.

The legal challenge that forced the special session was yet another case in Alabama’s tense history in which a court intervened to force the state to follow laws related to voting or civil rights. A previous legal challenge forced the creation in 1992 of the Seventh Congressional District as the state’s only majority-black district—a seat in southwest Alabama that was later held by a Black Democrat, including the current representative, Terri Sewell.

“Once again, the state’s supermajority has decided that black people’s voting rights are not something that this state has to respect, and it’s offensive, it’s wrong,” State Representative Prince Chestnut, a Democrat from Selma, said after the House vote on Wednesday. The series of party-line votes, he added, “shows that Alabama still has the same dogged and stubborn mentality that it had 100 years ago.”

The three-judge panel, which unanimously ordered the existing map redrawn last year, is due to hold a hearing on August 14, when it could decide to tap a special master.

The Supreme Court in June stunned many across the country by narrowly upholding a key remaining tenet of the Voting Rights Act, after a decade that saw the conservative majority effectively gut that law. The clause it upheld bars any rule or law that discriminates on the basis of language or race.

Before the Supreme Court upheld the lower court decision, lawyers for the state of Alabama said a new map would likely need to be in place by early October to be ready for the 2024 primaries.

Before the five-day special session, Democrats aligned themselves behind different plans, including a map that would create two districts in which at least 50 percent of the voting population was Black.

But the only maps to receive serious consideration by the full legislature were presented by Republicans.

Senator Steve Livingston, Republican of Scottsboro, said he spoke with House Speaker Kevin McCarthy of California before the vote on Friday, and that Mr. McCarthy “said, ‘I’m interested in keeping my majority.'” (A spokesman for Mr. McCarthy did not immediately return a request for comment.)

On Wednesday, the Alabama House approved a party-line map that increased the number of Black voters in the Second Congressional District to 42.45 percent, while the Senate approved an increase to 38.31 percent of Black voters in that district. (One Senate Republican voted against this proposal, as some conservatives complained about the decision to divide individual districts between districts, or move them into a new one.)

Two days later, a Republican-dominated committee met and within half an hour published and advanced a compromise proposal that raised the number of Black voters to 39.9 percent. Within hours, the full legislature approved the proposal and sent it to Gov. Kay Ivey, a Republican, who signed it.

“I’m sure we’ve done a good job — it’s up to the courts to decide if they agree,” said State Sen. Greg Reed, the Senate pro tempore president and a Jasper Republican.

Democrats in the minority, powerless and largely cut out of the entire process, instead spent hours this week contrasting the Republican-backed maps with their own preferred proposals.

They cautioned against rebuking the Supreme Court and said the court ruling was an opportunity to embrace fair electoral representation in the state, arguing that a higher margin of Black voters was necessary for their preferred candidates to prevail in a racially polarized state.

Some Democrats have accused Republicans of intentionally violating the court order to pave the way for another court battle that could further gut the Voting Rights Act, a decade after an Alabama county successfully challenged a key provision of the law as unconstitutional.

“All we’re asking for is equality, just to be equal, just to add some equality, just to be able to be respected and to be able to have a voice,” said State Sen. Bobby Singleton, the minority leader and Democrat from Greensboro. “I don’t think that’s too much, but obviously other people think it’s too much.”

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